Abstract

An analysis of seismic field data from surface shots in two radically different geologic environments shows significantly different seismic phases at the two sites. At the first site, which has a layered sedimentary section, five distinct phases are observed: the P-wave first arrival; a complex wave train consisting of higher mode Rayleigh waves; a precursor to air-blast wave; the air blast wave; and the air-coupled Rayleigh waves. Records from the second site, overlying an unlayered mass of igneous rocks, show only three distinct seismic phases: the P-wave first arrival; a simple wave train of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love waves; and an air blast wave. Peak ground velocity, based on the average of the three largest amplitudes in the surface waves preceding the air blast wave, scales well with yield for both sites. Measurements of peak ground velocity may be used to estimate yields of explosive charges at either site within a factor of about 2 if the source distance is known. The scaling relationship appears to be valid over a wide range of yields and site geological conditions.

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