A number of seismic source models for underground nuclear explosions have been developed over the past 2 decades. These models include the spherically symmetric compressional source model, the wave conversion source model, the tectonic strain release source model, the spall slapdown source model, and the near-regional source model. These model are reviewed in this study and are shown to be inconsistent with various geophysical data associated with underground nuclear explosions. In particular, the Rayleigh and Love wave signals generated by underground nuclear explosions have not been explained satisfactorily by any of these source models. To explain the observed explosion data, it may be necessary to model the explosion seismic source as a sequence of mechanisms producing seismic signals. These mechanisms all act within the first few seconds following the explosion detonation. One of the most important of these mechanisms is probably explosion-induced thrust faulting.