Twelve earthquakes have been documented in Minnesota in the last 120 yr. The first nine were felt, whereas the last three (all in 1979) were detected instrumentally by a six-element seismic array which has recently been put into operation. Estimated magnitudes range from 0.1 (instrumental only) to 4.8, with four of magnitude 4.3 or greater. The highest intensity values were VI to VII. Depths where obtainable are estimated at 5 to 20 km. The best documented event occurred on 9 July 1975 near Morris, Minnesota, with a magnitude of 4.6, a maximum intensity of VI, and a felt area of 82,000 km2 covering parts of four states. The event was recorded to epicentral distances of at least 38°.

The epicenters show a clear relationship to tectonic features of the state. Four epicenters lie along the newly defined Great Lakes Tectonic Zone, an east-northeast-trending belt extending across several states and into Canada. The zone separates 3,000 to 3,600 m.y. rocks of a gneissic terrane to the south from 2,700 m.y. rocks of a greenstone-granite terrane to the north. Four other events lie on known major northwest-trending faults in the greenstone-granite terrane. Two and possibly three events are associated with the western margin of the Midcontinent Rift System.

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