Plotting of three-dimensional ray surfaces in p-Δ-z space provides a means of determining p-Δ curves for any focal depth. A region of increasing velocity with depth is represented in p-Δ-z space by a trough, and a region of decreasing velocity, by a crest. Two sets of ray trajectories, the arrivals refracted outside a low-velocity zone, and the guided waves inside the zone, can be merged into a single set along the ray that splits into two at the top of the low-velocity zone. This ray is common to both sets. This construction provides continuity of the locus of ray turning points through the low-velocity zone and thus allows definition of p-Δ curves inside as well as outside the low-velocity zone.

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