We derive a shear-wave crust and upper mantle structure for the southern part of Novaya Zemlya by an application of the two-event, single-station method of Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity dispersion analysis. This method provides a means of isolating the surface-wave dispersion characteristics of a remote source region using only teleseismic recordings. The observed phase-velocity data are then systematically inverted to obtain a best-fitting model. Our preferred model has a 45-km thick crust with no shear-wave low-velocity zone in the upper mantle. It is similar to published structures for the southern Ural mountains and is therefore compatible with the premise that Novaya Zemlya is a nothern extension of the Urals.