Abstract

An examination of P-wave travel-time residuals from small earthquakes (source events) located near three larger earthquakes (4 ≦ M ≦ 5) that occurred on the San Andreas fault, near Bear Valley in central California, shows no temporal variations in the residuals extending over broad azimuth ranges (Δφ > ∼40°). Such variations could have resulted from changes in horizontal velocity anisotropy precursory to the larger events. The examination also shows (1) numerous azimuthal variations in the residuals within narrow azimuth bands (Δφ < ∼30°), apparently due to spatial heterogeneity of crustal velocity, (2) a dependence of residual on magnitude for a few stations but not for most stations, and (3) trends of residual versus source event focal depth for about one-third of the 75 source region-station pairs examined. Residuals in these cases typically change by 0.1 sec, and occasionally by 0.2 to 0.3 sec, over the 2- to 12-km focal depth range sampled. The trends vary from station to station in a complex manner. The assumption that traveltime changes are reflected in the residuals is tested by modifying arrival times from some source events according to assumed forms for the travel-time change, relocating those events, and comparing the resulting residuals with those from the unmodified data.

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