A relation between the magnitude of a shallow earthquake and the rupture parameters is derived by using a result of dislocation theory and assumptions as suggested from model studies: the average of the pre- and post-shock stresses on a fault and the seismic efficiency are approximately constant. Comparing this relation with observations of the rupture parameters for a number of large shallow earthquakes, the magnitude-energy relation 
is obtained. The value of α is estimated to be approximately 10.

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