ABSTRACT

Signals from nuclear explosions were used to calibrate seismograph stations (near-regional, regional, and teleseismic ranges) by determining the transfer functions of the lumped source-propagation path-receiver systems. Recorded signals other than those used for calibration purposes were used to derive the characteristics of the sources. It was found that source functions could be derived from distant signals when the frequencies of the output signals were reliably related to the source. For the output data used in this research, the low-frequency cutoff was 0.2 cps at all stations and the high-frequency cutoffs were 4.0, 3.0, and 2.0 cps at the near-regional, regional, and teleseismic distances, respectively. The low-frequency cutoff was due mainly to the recording instruments, and the high-frequency cutoffs were due to the attentuation of the seismic energy by the Earth. The most reliable results were obtained when three half-cycles of the observed output signals (first arrivals) were used. When explosions in granite were used as calibration sources, the energies derived for explosions in tuff, alluvium, and dolomite media were 88, 65, and 12 per cent of the respective “observed” source energies.

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