Elastic waves produced by an impact were recorded at the surface of a solid 12.0 inch diameter steel sphere coated with a 0.3 inch copper layer. Conventional modeling techniques employing both compressional and shear piezoelectric transducers were used to record elastic waves for one millisecond at various points around the great circle of the sphere. Body, PL, and surface waves were observed. Density, layer thickness, compressional and shear-wave velocities were measured so that accurate surface-wave dispersion curves could be computed. Surface-wave dispersion was measured as well as computed.
Measured PL mode dispersion compared favorably with theoretical computations. In addition, dispersion curves for Rayleigh, Stoneley, and Love modes were computed. Measured surface-wave dispersion showed Rayleigh and Love modes were observed but not Stoneley modes. Measured dispersion compared favorably with theoretical computations. The curvature correction applied to dispersion calculations in a flat space has been estimated to correct dispersion values at long-wave lengths to about one per cent of correct dispersion in a spherical model. Measured dispersion compared with such flat space dispersion corrected for curvature proved accurate within one per cent at long wave lengths.
Two sets of surface waves were observed. One set was associated with body waves radiating outward from impact. The other set was associated with body waves reflecting at the pole opposite impact. For each set of surface waves, measured dispersion compared favorably with computed dispersion.