abstract

The known expressions for the polar radiation patterns due to a horizontal or a vertical force, applied at a point within a uniform half space, are used to obtain the body wave radiation patterns from several other elementary seismic sources. Polar radiation patterns from seven elementary line sources, i.e., horizontal and vertical double forces without moment, horizontal and vertical single couples, center of dilatation, center of ratation, and double couple without moment, are first derived. Similar point sources in the three-dimensional space are also considered and the corresponding polar as well as azimuthal radiation patterns are obtained for P, SV, and SH waves. The results obtained include the effect of finite depth of the source below the free surface. Some of the results of Burridge et al for double-couple type seismic sources near a free surface are reproduced in a simple manner.

For the elementary point sources considered here, the azimuthal radiation patterns for a uniform half-space are found to be identical with those for an infinite homogeneous medium. However the polar radiation patterns appear to be profoundly affected by the proximity of the free surface.

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