abstract

The first-arrival data of the Lake Superior Experiment of 1963 have been interpreted by the time-term method. The analysis has shown the method to be well suited to this type of survey, and the results appear to be consistent and meaningful.

Approximately 500 first-arrivals from head waves generated at the Mohorovičić discontinuity, have been reduced to estimates of crustal time-terms at over 100 locations. A much shallower refracting surface (here called the Upper Refractor) furnished nearly 1,000 observations to yield upper crustal time-terms at the same locations. The analysis reveals the material beneath the UR and beneath the M to have velocities of 6.63 and 8.10 km/sec respectively. The surface of the Upper Refractor, on the basis of a simple interpretation of the time-terms, is revealed as undulating, coming close to the surface at the edges of the lake and reaching maximum depths of approxmately 15 km to the east and west of the Keweenaw Peninsula. On a similar basis the Mohorovičić discontinuity is revealed as an easterly dipping surface, having a depth of approximately 35 km at the west end of the lake and reaching a maximum depth of about 60 km in the region just west of the Keweenaw Peninsula. Eastwards, the time-term values fluctuate but do not increase or decrease systematically.

The velocity of the material lying above the Upper Refractor is not well determined, but appears to be roughly 5.5 km/sec. A perusal of geological literature suggests that this low velocity material is mostly sedimentary, filling a well-known synclincal basin whose axis bends around the Keweenaw Peninsula. This mainly sedimentary section is known to be underlain by a great thickness of igneous rocks, which in all probability corresponds to the Upper Refractor mapped by the seismic studies.

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