Abstract

Constraining earthquake locations with as few stations as possible is crucial for earthquake early warning. In this study, a new real‐time array‐based location algorithm is introduced that consists of two modules. The first is a single standalone array module that monitors waveform slowness and back azimuth in a continuous manner and identifies P‐ and S‐phase arrivals. The second is a multiarray module that intersects multiple back‐azimuth estimates and surfaces of equal differential arrivals of the P phase. Initial location estimates are issued either by the standalone module, after the S‐phase arrival to the first array, or by the multiple arrays module after the P phase arrives to a second array. Location estimates are subsequently updated with data made available by additional arrays. This approach is validated with 10 earthquakes recorded by small‐aperture arrays deployed along the Dead Sea Transform. Use of real‐time array methodology is particularly suited to environments with sparse network and/or unfavorable source–station configurations.

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