David E. Willis, John DeNoyer, James T. Wilson; Differentiation of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions on the basis of amplitude characteristics. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America ; 53 (5): 979–987. doi:
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The particle velocity ratios of the maximum shear-surface waves to maximum compressional waves were determined for a large number of earthquakes recorded over a wide geographic range. These results are compared with similar types of data for underground nuclear detonations recorded in the United States. It was found that this technique could be used as a diagnostic aid in distinguishing between these two types of sources at distances less than 1000 km.