The equation of motion of the seismometer and the galvanometer in an electromagnetic seismograph has been derived in the most general form taking into consideration all the forces acting on the system except that produced by hysteresis. A general solution has been derived assuming that the earth or the seismometer frame is subjected to a sustained simple harmonic motion, and expressions for both the transient and the steady term in the solution have been given. The results for the particular case when the seismograph satisfies the Galitzin conditions can easily be deduced from the results given in the present paper. The results can now be used to study the response characteristics of all electromagnetic seismographs, whether they satisfy the Galitzin conditions or not, and will thus give an accurate theoretical picture of the response also of seismographs used for the study of “local earthquakes” and “microseisms” which do not in general obey the Galitzin conditions. The results obtained can also be used to get analytically the response of the seismographs for different types of earth motion from the very beginning, and not only after the transient term has disappeared.
The theory of the response to simple tests used to determine the dynamic magnification of any seismograph and also to determine and check regularly the instrumental constants of the seismographs has been worked out. The results obtained can also be used for ascertaining the proper values of the instrumental constants suitable for the various purposes for which the seismographs are to be used.