A study of amplitudes of surface waves having periods of about 20 seconds is employed to improve the calculation of magnitudes of distant shallow earthquakes. Table 3 gives station corrections; table 4, revised figures for the effect of epicentral distance. It is found that for epicentral distances between about 20° and 175° the average observed amplitudes correspond closely to those calculated with an absorption coefficient k = 0.0003 per km. For paths completely outside or inside the Pacific Basin, k = 0.0002± per km., while for paths tangent to its boundary the amplitudes of surface waves with periods of about 20 seconds may be reduced by two-thirds or more (in extreme cases by almost nine-tenths) through reflection or refraction of energy; such seismograms of shallow shocks may be taken as indicating intermediate depth of focus.

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