ABSTRACT

Realistic dynamic rupture modeling validated by observed earthquakes is necessary for estimating parameters that are poorly resolved by seismic source inversion, such as stress drop, rupture velocity, and slip rate function. Source inversions using forward dynamic modeling are increasingly used to obtain earthquake rupture models. In this study, to generate a large number of physically self‐consistent rupture models, rupture process of which is consistent with the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of stress produced by previous earthquakes on the same fault, we use multicycle simulations under the rate and state (RS) friction law.

We adopt a one‐way coupling from multicycle simulations to dynamic rupture simulations; the quasidynamic solver QDYN is used to nucleate the seismic events and the spectral element dynamic solver SPECFEM3D to resolve their rupture process. To simulate realistic seismicity, with a wide range of magnitudes and irregular recurrence, several realizations of 2D‐correlated heterogeneous random distributions of characteristic weakening distance (Dc) in RS friction are tested. Other important parameters are the normal stress, which controls the stress drop and rupture velocity during an earthquake, and the maximum value of Dc, which controls rupture velocity but not stress drop. We perform a parametric study on a vertical planar fault and generate a set of a hundred spontaneous rupture models in a wide magnitude range (Mw 5.5–7.4).

We validate the rupture models by comparison of source scaling, ground motion (GM), and surface slip properties to observations. We compare the source‐scaling relations between rupture area, average slip, and seismic moment of the modeled events with empirical ones derived from source inversions. Near‐fault GMs are computed from the source models. Their peak ground velocities and peak ground accelerations agree well with the ground‐motion prediction equation values. We also obtain good agreement of the surface fault displacements with observed values.

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