Earthquake‐induced ground motions are determined by a combination of source, path, and site effects. As seismic waves propagate along a path from the fault rupture to a given site, they often encounter softer geologic materials as they approach the ground surface. Site response, broadly defined as the effects of near‐surface geologic materials on seismic waves, can significantly alter the amplitude, duration, and frequency content of ground motions. Therefore, to properly estimate seismic hazards and design earthquake‐resistant infrastructure, it is necessary to accurately assess the effects of site response on ground motions.

Observations of large variations in damage patterns over short...

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