An understanding of mantle dynamics occurring beneath the Tibetan plateau requires a detailed image of its seismic velocity and anisotropic structure. Surface waves at long periods () could provide such critical information. Though Rayleigh‐wave phase velocity maps have been constructed in the Tibetan regions using ambient‐noise tomography (ANT) and regional earthquake surface‐wave tomography, Love‐wave phase velocity maps, especially those at longer periods (), are rare. In this study, two‐plane‐wave teleseismic surface‐wave tomography is applied to develop 2D Rayleigh‐wave and Love‐wave phase velocity maps at periods between 20 and 143 s across eastern and central Tibet and its surroundings using four temporary broadband seismic experiments. These phase velocity maps share similar patterns and show high consistency with those previously obtained from ANT at overlapping periods (20–50 s), whereas our phase velocity maps carry useful information at longer periods (50–143 s). Prominent slow velocity is imaged at periods of 20–143 s beneath the interior of the Tibetan plateau (i.e., the Songpan–Ganzi terrane, the Qiangtang terrane, and the Lhasa terrane), implying the existence of thick Tibetan crust along with warm and weak Tibetan lithosphere. In contrast, the dispersal of fast velocity anomalies coincides with mechanically strong, cold tectonic blocks, such as the Sichuan basin and the Qaidam basin. These phase velocity maps could be used to construct 3D shear‐wave velocity and radial seismic anisotropy models of the crust and upper mantle down to 250 km across the eastern and central Tibetan plateau.