The Longmen Shan fault zone that was shocked by the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake acts as the boundary between the western edge of the Sichuan basin and the steep eastern margin of the Songpan‐Ganze block. In this study, continuous seismic data recorded by 176 temporary short‐period seismic stations between 22 October and 20 November 2017 are used to study the shallow crustal structure of the Longmen Shan fault zone by applying ambient‐noise tomography and horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis. From ambient‐noise analysis, fundamental‐mode Rayleigh‐wave dispersion curves between 0.25 and 1 Hz are extracted. Then, the direct surface‐wave tomographic method is used to invert surface‐wave dispersion data for the 3D shallow shear‐wave velocity structure. Our results show that low shear‐wave velocities are mainly distributed around the surface rupture trace of the Wenchuan earthquake at least down to 2 km. From the HVSR method, the sites are sorted into two types according to the pattern of HVSR curves with single peak or double peak. By converting frequency to depth, the results show that the sediments are thicker near the surface rupture. The low‐velocity zone based on ambient‐noise tomography agrees well with the distribution of sedimentary cover estimated from HVSR, which are generally consistent with geological information. Our results provide high‐resolution shallow crustal velocity structure for future detailed studies of the Longmen Shan fault.