China has a nearly 3000‐year‐long earthquake record listed in various Chinese earthquake catalogs. The magnitudes in those catalogs are expressed in surface‐wave magnitude . However, modern seismic‐hazard analysis prefers earthquake catalogs in moment magnitude . Here, we compile a homogeneous ‐based historical earthquake catalog based on three Chinese earthquake catalogs and three global catalogs. For post‐1900 earthquakes, we compare the common events with in Chinese catalogs and with in global catalogs, and derive regression relationships using a constrained general orthogonal regression method. The regressions are performed separately over two magnitude ranges ( and ) and three time periods (1900–1965, 1966–1975, and 1976–2015) because earthquake monitoring capabilities in China varied over those magnitudes and time ranges. We use the regression results to convert magnitudes in the Chinese catalog to magnitudes. For pre‐1900 events, we apply the regression results of the 1900–1965 period because the values of the pre‐1900 events were converted from shaking intensity, and the ‐intensity relationships were derived from the post‐1900 earthquakes. We also add earthquakes from other catalogs to obtain a more complete ‐based catalog for China. The final catalog has about 15,700 earthquakes of The catalog is more complete for eastern China than western China because eastern China has a much longer history of human settlement.