We compare different methods to estimate frequency‐domain amplification and duration lengthening of earthquake ground motion in the Mygdonian basin (Greece). Amplification is measured by standard spectral ratios (SSRs) of horizontal component or by single‐station earthquake horizontal‐to‐vertical ratios (EHVRs). Duration lengthening is measured either by the group delay method (Beauval et al., 2003) and labeled GDDL, or based on the significant duration (Trifunac and Brady, 1975) and labeled TBDL. The methods are applied both to high‐quality recordings of the European experimental site EUROSEISTEST array and to a large set of 3D synthetics computed in a new basin model for 1260 sources regularly distributed in depth, distance, and azimuth from the center of the array.

The analysis of the recordings in the center of the basin shows an anticorrelation between amplification and duration lengthening, that is, maxima (resp. minima) of GDDL correspond to minima (resp. maxima) of SSR. The maxima of GDDL are also found to coincide with those of SSR variability. This is confirmed by the analysis of the synthetics, which also reveals a pronounced north–south asymmetry of both amplification and duration lengthening caused by nonisotropic excitation of surface waves at the basin edges. We find that all estimates of site response depend on source location and that EHVR is also strongly sensitive to energy partitioning in the analyzed wavefield. We quantify the source‐related variability of each estimate, discuss the biases in site response estimation using incomplete source catalogs, and investigate whether the azimuthal dependence of site response can be identified in the recordings.

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