Abstract

The accurate modeling of ground motion for induced‐seismicity hazard estimation is critically dependent on how amplitudes scale with distance near the hypocenter. A rich database of ground motions from small events recorded at close distances in the Geysers region of California has been used to constrain the near‐distance saturation effects that control the maximum observed ground motions and intensities for shallow‐induced events. The results of this study support the modeling of these effects using an equivalent point‐source concept, in which the effective source depth increases from a value near 1 km at moment magnitude (M) of 2 to a value near 3 km at M 4. This near‐distance saturation behavior can be applied to the development of ground‐motion models for induced seismicity in any region.

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