The mantle transition zone (MTZ) structure beneath eastern China is studied by using P‐wave receiver functions. The 410 km discontinuity is relatively flat whereas the depth of the 660 km discontinuity varies significantly under the study area. This indicates that the 660 is more influenced by laterally varying temperature. The 520 km discontinuity is continuously observed at ∼520 km depth under a limited area. Within the South China Block, the MTZ thickness under the Yangtze Craton is larger than normal whereas that under the Cathaysia Block is nearly normal. This indicates colder temperature affecting the MTZ beneath the Yangtze Craton. Combined with seismic tomography, our result suggests that the stagnant ancient slab beneath eastern China is mainly trapped around the base of the MTZ beneath the Yangtze Craton in the study area.