Abstract

The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake ruptured the previously unmapped Léogâne fault, a secondary transpressional structure located close to the Enriquillo fault, the major fault system assumed to be the primary source of seismic hazard for southern Haiti. In the absence of a precise aftershock catalog, previous estimations of coseismic slip had to infer the rupture geometry from geodetic and/or seismological data. Here we use a catalog of precisely relocated aftershocks beginning one month after the event and covering the following 5 months to constrain the rupture geometry, estimate a slip distribution from an inversion of Global Positional Systems (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and coastal uplift data, and calculate the resulting changes of Coulomb failure stress on neighboring faults. The relocated aftershocks confirm a north‐dipping structure consistent with the Léogâne fault, as inferred from previous slip inversions, but with two subfaults, each corresponding to a major slip patch. The rupture increased Coulomb stresses on the shallow Enriquillo fault parallel to the Léogâne rupture surface and to the west (Miragoâne area) and east (Port‐au‐Prince). Results show that the cluster of reverse faulting earthquakes observed further to the west, coincident with the offshore Trois Baies fault, are triggered by an increase in Coulomb stress. Other major regional faults did not experience a significant change in stress. The increase of stress on faults such as the Enriquillo are a concern, as this could advance the timing of future events on this fault, still capable of magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes.

Online Material: Figures showing observed and calculated InSAR ranges for tracks 137 and 447.

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