Ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for Hawaii are developed using the referenced empirical approach. The technique is based on the use of residual analysis that models discrepancies between ground-motion observations for Hawaii and a reference GMPE, in this case the GMPE of Boore and Atkinson (2008) for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. The referenced empirical approach provides GMPEs for Hawaii that are in agreement with regional ground-motion observations, while being constrained to follow the overall scaling behavior of ground motion that is observed in better-instrumented regions. GMPEs are developed for both shallow (depth<20 km) and deep (35 to 40 km) earthquakes in Hawaii.

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