Abstract

In Chapter 1, introduction, this article is stated to be concerned with correlations between rising and falling magma and measurement of ground movements.

In Chapter 2, on the lava column, the contents are (1) the nature of Hawaiian lava lakes, (2) methods of measurement, (3) the duplex quality of the lava column at the surface, (4) the gas and pressure controls, (5) processes of growing strain, elastic stress and thermochemistry, (6) importance of thermo-chemical controls, (7) lake magma and bench magma, (8) pyromagma, epimagma, hypomagma and perilith, the four elements of a lava column, (9) physical relations of these, (10) the double convectional mechanism, (11) surficial expansion cooling and gas heating, (12) disruptive expansion, (13) the “geyser” effect, (14) clastolith and dermolith, the dead and live lavas, (15) gas release shallow, (16) thermal gradient and oxygen, (17) summary of lava column, (18) the volcanic system, (19) volcanic seismicity due to nine types of stress change, (20) changes of volume, (21) fixed rift surfaces.

In Chapter 3 is discussed cyclical lava change. (1) Sensitive earth crust, (2) Perret's hypothesis, (3) Wood's hypothesis, (4) comparison Perret and Wood, (5) direction of stress, (6) analysis general habit of Halemaumau 1912-1916.

Chapter 4 treats of the volcanic history of hawaii. (1) The island, (2) the craters: Kohala, (3) Mauna Kea, (4) Hualalai, (5) Mauna Loa, (6) history of origin of Mauna Loa, (7) Kilauea, (8) Kilauea older than Mauna Loa, (9) foundation under Hawaii.

Chapter 5 discusses seismometric measurement of slow tilting in hawaii. (1) Excessive tilt, (2) correspondence with lava fluctuation, (3) tilting elsewhere: Cambridge, Massachusetts, (4) tilting in Tokyo, (5) tilts due to water tides, (6) diurnal tilt at Trieste, (7) Galitzin's mention of extreme tilts, (8) volcanic tilting in Japan, (9) Usu-san, (10) Sakurajima, (11) special tilt measurement, Kilauea; the instruments, (12) sources of error, (13) special tilt instrument, (14) method of determining tilt constants, (15) seconds factors adopted, (16) table of daily tilts, (17) method of computing total tilt and direction, (18) general features of table, (19) investigation of temperature effects, (20) table of hourly tilts, (21) analytical table duration northwest and southwest tilts, (22) comparison diurnal tilts elsewhere, (23) parallelism of tilt chart and thermogram, (24) net cumulative tilt not in accord with temperature, (25) summary diurnal temperature effect, (26) table of six-day tilts; general characters, (27) grouping of significant periods, (28) comparison with one-day tilts, (29) curve of tilting for thirty-one weeks, (30) curve of lava rise and fall, (31) comparative fluctuations pyromagma and epimagma, (32) comparison lava and tilting, (33) test of theory of instantaneous correspondence, (34) test of theory of lava lagging, (35) eighteen-day lag agrees for rising lava and east tilt, (36) theoretical discussion of forecasting data, (37) permanent tilt deformation, (38) summary of conclusions concerning tilt, (39) suggested order of causation, (40) nutation stress and the daily tide, (41) supposed northeast tilts, (42) observed phenomena of tumefaction, (43) direct luni-solar warping insufficient.

Chapter 6 deals with local earthquakes and tremors. (1) Notes already published, (2) table of earthquake sequences 1912-1917, (3) eruptive episodes and seismicity, (4) general characters of local earthquakes, (5) comparison with lava fluctuation, (6) suggested relations Mauna Loa and Kilauea, (7) frequency related to equinox, (8) earthquake agreement instantaneous, tilt not, (9) tremors: two kinds present, (10) harmonic slower tremors; comparison Japan, (11) spasmodic quicker tremors; comparison Japan, (12) strong tremors accompanying eruption, (13) ordinary spasmodic tremor; general character, (14) ordinary harmonic tremor; its direction, (15) quantitative comparison tilt and tremors, methods of tremor measurement, (16) table of comparative tilt and tremors, (17) chart showing accordances, (18) accordance tilt and tremor, discordance earthquake frequency, (19) amplitude as expressing energy, (20) earthquake frequency accordant with rate of lava movement 1917-1918.

Chapter 7 summarizes results of the investigation.

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