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For 75 years, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) has provided a forum and a mechanism for the world-wide exchange of research findings across the sub-disciplines in the geophysical sciences, and for planning major international, interdisciplinary projects. IUGG also provides opportunities for individual scientists to come to know and interact personally with colleagues from many nations. This year, for the first time since 1963 in Berkeley, the quadrennial IUGG General Assembly will be held in this country, on the campus of the University of Colorado at Boulder.

The U.S. National Committee for IUGG decided to ask the National Academy of Science to invite IUGG to meet in our country after 32 years because it is deemed desirable to have a general assembly here at least once within the scientific career of every American geophysicist. We are especially pleased to be able to offer students...

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 3. doi:


The new issue of Seismological Research Letters hit my desk today, and I like it very much. It is visually attractive, and full of articles and notes that are both timely and interesting to scan. My guess is that you have a big hit on your hands. Keep up the good work.

Sean Solomon

Carnegie Institute of Washington Washington, DC

My hat is off to you, your staff and the editorial committees. The first issue is superb. Way to go!

Ralph J. Archuleta

Dept. of Geological Sciences & Institute for Crustal Studies University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA

I just received my copy of the new SRL and I think the journal is SUPER! The breadth of the material covered is amazing and will truly help in enhancing communication within and without the seismological community.

Even with all the rain we have had here in Santa Barbara, I...

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 4-5. doi:

News & Notes


Professor Bruce A. Bolt, Faculty Participant at the Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California at Berkeley, has been invited to present the Fifth Mallet-Milne Lecture in London. The Lecture will be given on Wednesday, 24 May 1995, 5:00 pm at the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1-7 Great George Street, London. The title of the lecture is “From Earthquake Acceleration to Seismic Displacement” and is sponsored by The British Geological Society.

The Mallet-Milne Lectures, a series of public biennial lectures, have been established by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics, Great Britain, in honor of the pioneering British earthquake scientists Robert Mallet (1818–1883) and john Milne (185–1913). Professor Bolt follows a distinguished line of previous Maller-Milne lecturers, including George W. Housner, N.N. Ambraseys, Geoffrey B. Warburton, and Thomas Paulay.

For more information, contact Katherine A. Frohmberg, Earthquake Engineering Research Center,...

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 5-6. doi:


The January 17, 1994 (Mw=6.7) Northridge, California Earthquake was the most costly natural disaster in U.S. history, resulting in estimated monetary losses on the order of 18 to 20 billion dollars. Fifty-seven fatalities and 8,716 injuries have been attributed to the earthquake, and more than 414,000 families were temporarily displaced from their homes. More than 114,000 buildings were damaged, at least 2,900 of which were unsafe for re-entry. In addition, over 3,500 pipe breaks occurred, interrupting utility services to some areas for as long as two weeks.

In this report, a variety of geotechnical phenomena which significantly influenced the locations and severity of much of this damage will be discussed. The report is organized into four sections to describe: (1) the characteristics of ground motions and associated damage patterns, (2) occurrences of ground failure in basin and coastal areas, (3) occurrences of landslides in mountainous areas, and (4) the...

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 7-19. doi:


In the aftermath of glasnost' and the break-up of the Soviet Union, increasing interest has developed within Russia on ecological damage in general and underground nuclear explosions in particular. Much of the attention has been directed at the nuclear test sites in Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan, where both underground and surface testing have been conducted. Publicity about leakage of radioactive gas from the Semipalatinsk test site and health problems apparently related to nuclear testing led to a moratorium on testing there in 1990 (Feshbach and Friendly, 1992). In addition to detonations at the test sites, numerous peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) were conducted for crustal and mantle structure studies throughout the former USSR(e.g., Benz et al., 1992), as well as for economic and developmental purposes. Of these, twelve were conducted in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), eastern Russian Federation. These PNEs were primarily conducted in the western part of...

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 20-24. doi:


A seismic event of ML (local magnitude) 5.1 occurred at 8:26 a.m. MST (15:26 UTC) on Feb. 3, 1995, in southwestern Wyoming. The epicenter of the shock (Figures 1 and 2) was 29 km west of the town of Green River in a region where five active underground mining operations are extracting trona—an evaporite mineral composed of sodium sesquicarbonate—from a major world class deposit which has been mined continuously since 1947 (Brown, 1995).The trona is processed into soda ash, which is used in the manufacturing of glass, paper, sodium bicarbonate, and other sodium-based chemicals. The seismic event directly impacted the trona mine operated by Solvay Minerals, where subsurface roof caving and methane gas release endangered 55 miners underground, injured ten of them, and led to one fatality.

The seismological and geodetic evidence summarized in this paper indicates that most of the seismic wave energy of the Feb. 3rd event...

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 25-34. doi:
Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 42-57. doi:

This report includes hypocenters for seismic events that occurred in July and August 1994 as published in the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) Monthly Listing, U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center. It is limited to three types of events: (1) earthquakes with a magnitude of 6 or more, (2) earthquakes causing substantial damage, and (3) events of special interest.

Time is given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), unless otherwise specified. Latitude and longitude are given to hundredths of a degree for all locations except for events at the Nevada Test Site, which are given to hundredths of a second of arc. Depths constrained to “normal” (33 km) or other assigned depths are indicated by “constrained.” Those made to agree with depth phases are marked “depth phases.” Reports followed by (GS) are taken from the PDE Monthly Listing. All reported intensities correspond to the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale or other...

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 61-65. doi:



Seismologists acquire and use two basic types of data, waveform data (seismograms) and reduced data (data which have been derived from waveform data or from synthetic models). Easy and rapid access to such data are important for us to be able to make progress in our research. We are used to having both waveform data as well as reduced data available to us on our own computer and in a form which our programs can use. To obtain such data means that we must record it or generate the data ourselves or obtain it from someone else. After the use of computers for seismic processing and recording began, seismic data were acquired through personal contact by exchanging either tapes or floppies. Over the past few years, data exchange over the Intemet has come to supplement and even supplant the older data transfer methods....

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 35-37. doi:


EERI Oral History Series

The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute has published the second volume in Connections: The EERI Oral History Series, based on interviews with John A. Blume. EERI initiated the series to preserve some of the rich history of those who have pioneered in the field of earthquake engineering and seismic design. It chronicles the thinking of such prime figures as Henry J. Degenkolb (first volume, published in April 1994), John E. Rinne, George W. Housner, Michael V. Pregnoff, and William W. Moore (interviews completed or nearing completion), to name just a few. Their reminiscences are a vital contribution to the understanding of development of seismic design and earthquake hazard reduction.

Current EERI members should have received the publication at the end of 1994 as part of their membership deal. Non-members can obtain a copy of the John A. Blume interviews for $15.00 by sending an order with payment...

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 38-39. doi:



In an effort to foster cooperation between federal, state, and university researchers working on the New Madrid Seismic Zone, a RAMP (Rapid Array Mobilization Plan) meeting was held recently in Memphis. The idea behind the meeting was to provide a forum to poll participants concerning needs assessment and the availability of resources, and to prepare a rough draft of a mutual aid agreement which would coordinate the response to a large earthquake in the central U.S. Organizers invited most of the university researchers in the region together with USGS and IRIS personnel.

A RAMP activation committee was formed is composed of two university researchers, one from the USGS, and one from the CUSEC (Central United States Earthquake Consortium) State Geologists. For more information on the Midwest RAMP, contact Paul Bodin at CERI, Gary Pavlis at Indiana University, or Eugene (Buddy) Schweig with the USGS at CERI.

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 40-41. doi:

Place: Room 826, Holiday Inn, Coliseum, Columbia, South Carolina

Attendant: John Ebel (JE), Robert Wetmiller (RW), Christine Powell (CP), Susan Newman (SN), Waverly Person (WP), Jer-Ming Chiu (JMC).

Topics Discussed

1. JSA Award This is the first JSA award for the ESSSA. The first year nomination committee members included Andy Murohy, and Brian Mitchell with the exclusion of the 3rd member Gil Bollinger (because Gil was one of the nominated candidates) have recommended Gil Bollinger to be the first year JSA award winner in appreciation of his contributions in eastern U.S. seismic network monitoring and seismotectonics studies in the southeastern U.S. Since Gil Bollinger was not at the meeting, the award will be announced and a plaque will be awarded to Gil at the next SSA meeting to be held in El Paso next Spring. Other business discussed at this meeting included:

(1) Nomination Committee : three nomination committee members,...

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 58-59. doi:


MAY, 1995

May 15–17 SEE-2

Second International Conference on Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Teheran, Iran.

May 24–26 Cordilleran Section Meeting, Geological Society of America

Fairbanks, AK. (Jeanine Schmidt/Christina Neal, U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667. Phone 907-786-7494/907-786-7456, fax 907-786-7401.)

May 24–26 Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering

Crete, Greece. (Wessex Institute of Technology, Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst, Southampton, S04 2AA, England. Phone 44/0/703 293223, fax 44/0/793 292853, e-mail

May 29–June 2 American Geophysical Union/Mineralogical Society of America

Spring Meeting, Baltimore. (AGU, 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone 202-462-6900, fax 202-328-0566.)

JUNE, 1995

June 5–7 7th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering

Montreal, Canada. (Phone 514-340-3713, fax 514-340-5881.)

June 21–24 7th Annual IRIS Workshop, “IRIS-2000”

Jackson Lake Lodge, Grand Teton National Park, WY. (Liz McDowell, IRIS Headquarters, 1616 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 1050, Arlington, VA 22209. Phone 703-524-6222, fax 703-527-7256, e-mail

JULY, 1995

July 2–14 IUGG XXI General Assembly

Seismological Research Letters May 01, 1995, Vol.66, 66-67. doi:
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