This study of the Palaeozoic Scaphopoda collection of National Museums Scotland (NMS) is concerned exclusively with material of Carboniferous age. A type specimen, described in 1825, is reconfirmed as a member of ‘Vermes’ rather than Mollusca. Most of the collection is in several informal groups ranging from probable worm tubes though possible worm tubes to Cephalopoda. One new species of a valid member of the Scaphopoda is identified in the collection.

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