The known fossil insects of Carboniferous age from Scotland are reviewed. Of the seven recorded, one record is highly dubious and rejected, and another is herein identified as a crustacean. The remaining five insects belong to three orders: The extinct order Protodonata (giant dragonflies) is represented by the holotype of Truemania multiplicata (Bolton 1922). The extinct order Palaeodictyoptera is represented by the holotypes of Lithomantis carbonarius Woodward 1876 and the nymph Idoptilus peachii (Woodward 1887b) comb. nov. The order Blattodea (cockroaches) is represented by the lost holotype of ‘Lithomylacris’ kirkbyiWoodward 1887a and a nearly complete cockroach, herein identified as Archimylacris? sp. The localities and ages are reviewed and the five insect specimens came from the Coal Measures (Westphalian) of Ayrshire and Fife.