Two specimens of a new choiid demosponge, Choiaella scotica sp. nov., have been identified in the collections of the National Museums of Scotland. This is one of very few post-Cambrian records for the family, and only the second from Scotland. Both Scottish records occur in fine sandstones of shallow-water origin, but in probably different depositional environments, with the new specimens being transported into deeper water. It is possible that this group was abundant and widespread in shallow-water siliciclastic environments during the Early Palaeozoic, but its record has been limited by the low preservation potential of these habitats. The taxonomy of Choiidae is discussed, with the emphasis on establishing potentially useful diagnostic features for future discoveries.