Two different lines, each forming a subgenus, can be distinguished in middle and upper Oligocene carnivores belonging to the genus Haplocyon. The new subgenus Parhaplocyon contains a single species, P. elegans n. sp.; it persists throughout the Stampian to the Aquitanian. The subgenus Haplocyon evolved toward acquisition of a more prominent dentition and was ancestral to the genus Haplocyonides. This group of carnivores constitutes the new subfamily Haplocyoninae.