The similarity of upper Carboniferous and Autunian (lower Permian) floras and of faunas, and most of the Autunian sediments, indicates a hot, humid climate interrupted by several dry periods during the Autunian. Saxonian (middle Permian) fauna and sediments show increasing dryness without reaching actual desert climate until the end of the epoch. Conditions differed from basin to basin during both the Autunian and the Saxonian, and relief greatly influenced the climate. Thus flora, fauna, and climate require interpretation with great care. Textures of eolian sedimentary deposits of the Permian give some information concerning prevailing wind directions and atmospheric conditions, but paleomagnetic conditions are poorly known.

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