The Miocene basin evolution of southeastern Spain and eastern Morocco is linked to a "shear zone" elongated from SW across the Alboran Sea. In Spain the magmatism is mostly calc-alkaline (or K-rich calc-alkaline). Most of the products are locatred on strike-slip faults (Almeria-Cabo de Gata). Lavas of dacitic compositions are interpreted as products of crustal anatexis. During Messinian time, lamproites are erupted over an extended area. Later (Plio-Quaternary), alkali basalts are located near Cartagena. In Morocco, calc-alkaline magmatism is not as developed as in Spain; late Tortonian-Messinian volcanoes (Gourougou, Guilliz) have erupted of shoshonitic lavas. Alkali basalts are abundant and appear from the end of Messinian to Quaternary all over northwestern Africa. In the studied area, there are no chronological nor geochemical polarity of the magmatism according to the existence of a Miocene subduction. The association of the magmatism with tectonics and basin evolution shows that it is linked with their aperture. The structure of the lithosphere, as it appears from the geophysical data, shows the existence of two different crusts, separated by the western part of the "shear zone". Trans-Alboran calc-alkaline magmatism is clearly correlated with the activity of this "shear zone", from Miocene to present time.