Thermo-mechanical numerical modelling becomes a universal tool for studying short- and long-term lithosphere processes, validating and verifying geodynamic and geological concepts and putting stronger constraints on the observational data. State-of-the-art models account for rheological and mineralogical structure of the lithosphere, implement high resolution calculations, and their outputs can be directly matched with the geological and geophysical observations. Challenges of these models are vast including understanding of the behavior of complex geological systems and processes, parameterization of rheological parameters and other rock properties for geological conditions, not forgetting a large number of future methodological breakthroughs such as the development of ultra-high resolution 3D models coupled with thermodynamic processes, fluid circulation and surface processes. We here discuss both geological and geodynamic applications of the models, their principles, and the results of regional modelling studies focused on rifting, convergent and transform plate boundaries.

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