Abstract

Surface displacement field of landslides is a key parameter to access to their geometries and mechanical properties. Surface displacements can be calculated using remote-sensing methods such as interferometry for radar data and image correlation for optical data. These methods have been elaborated this last decade and successfully applied on sensors (radar, cameras, terrestrial 3D laser scanner imaging) either attached to space or aerial platforms such as satellites, planes, and unmanned radio-controlled platforms (drones and helicopters) or settled at fixed positions emplaced in the front of landslides. This paper reviews the techniques of image analysis (interferometry and optical data correlation) to measure displacements and examines the performance of each type of platforms. Examples of applications of these techniques in French South Alps are shown. Depending on the landslide characteristics (exposure conditions, size, velocity) as well as the goal of the study (operational or scientific purpose), one or a combination of several techniques and data (characterized by several resolution, accuracy, covered surface, revisiting time) have to be used. Radar satellite data processed with differential interferometric or PS methods are mainly suitable for scientific purposes due to various application limitations in mountainous area. Optical satellite and aerial images can be used for scientific studies at fairly high resolution but are strongly dependant on atmospheric conditions. Platforms and sensors such as drone, fixed camera, fixed radar and Lidar have the advantage of high adaptability. They can be used to obtain very high resolution and precise 3D data (of centimetric accuracy) suitable for both scientific and operational purposes.

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