Reconstruction of the composition and organisation of the late Pliocene vegetation in central Mediterranean and quantification of the climatic requirements of its main representatives allow temperature and precipitation estimates during the late Pliocene glacial/interglacial cycles, at ca 2.4 Ma. The late Pliocene climatic glacial and interglacial conditions are illustrated on a bioclimagram which correlates the mean annual temperature and precipitation criteria. Comparison between modern and late Pliocene vegetation indicates that late Pliocene interglacial climate was approximately 4 degrees C warmer, with more higher amount of precipitation than today, and that conditions similar to modern ones prevailed during late Pliocene glacials.

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