Abstract

This paper which begins with the experiments of Wyart and Sabatier, and of Winkler and von Platen, is a short review of several earlier experiments (end of the XVIIIth-beginning of the XIXth century). H. B. de Saussure cooled melted granite to show that it did not produce basalt, but a glass. Dolomieu was the first to state that basalt occurred beneath the granite of the earth's crust. Sir James Hall, in his famous experiments, showed that either glass or a "stone" formed according to cooling rates. Later on, in order to solve the question of the origin of granite, which separated magmatists from anti-magmatists, Senarmont, Daubree, and H. Rose produced quartz and silicates at low temperature by wet techniques. They opened a new epoch by showing the role of water.

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