The terrestrial feeding trace Edaphichnium lumbricatum is known from the Triassic to the Pleistocene and is characterized by tubular burrows with ellipsoidal fecal pellets, indicating substrate feeding by earthworms or other invertebrates. We describe 11 specimens attributable to Edaphichnium isp. from Egg Mountain, a terrestrial locality with a diverse fossil assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation in Montana, USA, and assess their paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications. These ichnofossils were recovered from a 1.5 meter stratigraphic succession comprised of calcareous siltstones and limestones with abundant fossil insect pupal cases, representing well-drained paleosols. Although burrows are not always present, three recurring arrangements of Edaphichnium isp. fecal pellets are identified: linearly arranged pellets, horizon-confined pellets, and pellets in clusters dispersed vertically and horizontally throughout the matrix. Two color patterns (light and dark pellets) are also distinguished. Pellets are fine-grained and have a consistently ellipsoidal shape (length:diameter of 1.57), with maximum lengths ranging from 1.9–6.7 mm (mean 4.1 mm) and maximum diameters ranging from 1.0–4.1 mm (mean 2.6 mm). Geochemical analyses indicate pellets are comprised of varying proportions of calcite, plagioclase, and quartz, and are enriched in phosphorus relative to the sedimentary host matrix. Possible trace makers include chafer or other coleopteran larvae, millipedes, and earthworms, suggesting a range of capable trace makers of Edaphichnium-like fecal pellets. Edaphichnium isp. at specific stratigraphic horizons suggests increased organic content in the subsurface, potentially connected to depositional hiatuses. Edaphichnium isp. adds a secondary component to the Celliforma ichnofacies known from Egg Mountain and surrounding strata, and to the array of nesting, feeding, and dwelling traces of wasps, beetles, other invertebrates, mammals, and dinosaurs from the locality.

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