In the Silurian, the most common hosts of endobiotic rugose corals were stromatoporoids followed by tabulate corals. Here we describe the relationship between rugose corals and a bryozoan. Solitary rugosans and the cystoporate bryozoan Fistulipora przhidolensis Kopajevich, 1990 formed a symbiotic association in the late Silurian (Pridoli) of Saaremaa, Estonia. The syn vivo nature of the association is indicated by complete intergrowth of both organisms and the perpendicular orientation of the rugosans to the bryozoan growth surface. There are one to seven endobiotic rugosans per bryozoan colony. This is the first detailed study of coral-bryozoan symbiosis from the Silurian; all previous reports describe Late Ordovician, Devonian, or Cenozoic material. The lack of malformations and decrease in the size of bryozoan zooids near the rugosans suggest there were no strong negative effects of the rugosans on the bryozoan. The rugosans likely benefited from their association with the bryozoan, which served as an anchor to stabilize them in hydrodynamically active waters, and the bryozoan may have benefited by protection against some types of predators. The associations described here were most likely mutualistic.

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