Abstract:

Corals formed at least 15 symbiotic associations in the Devonian. Tabulates formed symbiotic associations more often than rugose corals, with the largest number of different taxa involved in stromatoporoid-syringoporid and brachiopod-auloporid symbioses. Eight of fifteen symbiotic associations first appeared in the Devonian, all of which except for the crinoid-tabulate association went extinct by the end of the Devonian. The general increase in symbiotic interactions involving corals in the Devonian can be explained by the increase in number of coral taxa. The influence of Ordovician/Silurian and Frasnian/Famennian mass extinctions on coral symbiosis was different: the Ordovician/Silurian mass extinction did not terminate coral symbiosis, whereas the Frasnian/Famennian mass extinction almost entirely terminated symbiotic interactions between the corals and other invertebrates.

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