The biotic crisis that heralded the end of the Paleozoic era and simultaneously ushered in the Mesozoic era occurred during an interval of profound environmental change, including strongly increased levels of greenhouse gases (Payne et al., 2004; Kump et al., 2005; Luo et al., 2011), and a sharp decline in the proportion of dissolved oxygen in the world's oceans (Isozaki, 1994, 1997; Grice et al., 2005; Berner et al., 2007). Numerous geochemical and biogeochemical methodologies have documented the changing chemistry of the world's oceans through the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (e.g., Musashi...

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