Leaves are the fundamental photosynthetic unit of a plant, and yet they suffer more tissue loss to herbivory than any other plant organ (Schowalter, 2000). Traces of insect folivory, or feeding on leaves, are clearly visible on the leaf surface. For example, after an insect consumes part of a leaf, the surrounding tissue becomes thickened to prevent further damage or desiccation (Fig. 1A). Galls and mines (Figs. 1B–D) are evidence that the leaf provided shelter and food for insect eggs and larvae. Some leaves even have scars showing where they were pierced by an...

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