The first law of thermodynamics dictates that biology can not exist without geology. Life needs energy to grow and reproduce; that energy comes from chemical gradients produced by geochemical cycles. The details of these cycles throughout Earth history have imprinted themselves into the metabolism of bacteria and the metals used in enzymes. The success of the Archaeal and Eubacterial domains is due to numerous specializations taking advantage of specific chemical gradients. With multi-cellular organisms, we are used to thinking of geology shaping populations by isolating them or by providing catastrophic events that change the rules for survival. However, the internal...

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