ABSTRACT

Dolomitized fault–fracture structures in the Trenton and Black River formations (TBR) are the type example for “hydrothermal” petroleum reservoirs world-wide. However, fluid histories of these structures are only partially understood. Trenton and Black River reservoirs in the southern Michigan Basin are composed of fault-associated, vertical dolomite bodies that are highly fractured and brecciated. Open spaces are partially to completely filled by saddle dolomite and less frequently by calcite cement. Cathodoluminescence microstratigraphies of void-filling carbonate cements are not correlatable between oil fields. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures (Th) measured in carbonate cements indicate two fluid endmembers: a warm fluid (∼ 80° to 180° C) and a hot fluid (180° to ∼ 260° C). Increasing Th proximal to the underlying Proterozoic Mid-Michigan Rift (MMR) suggest that the hot fluids emanated from the rift area. Included fluids are saline (16.1–49.4 wt. % NaCl equivalent), and salinity likely is sourced from overlying Silurian Salina Group evaporites. First melting temperatures (Tfm), interpreted as eutectic temperatures (Te), of fluids range from –112° C to –50° C, indicating a complex Na–Ca–KCl brine; the expected composition of dissolved Salina salts. Lower Te proximal to the MMR suggest the rift as a source of additional complexing ions. C and O isotope values for carbonate cements are depleted with respect to δ18O (–6.59 to –12.46‰ VPDB) relative to Ordovician seawaters, and somewhat depleted with respect to δ13C (–1.22 to +1.18‰ VPDB). Equilibrium calculations from δ18O and Th values indicate that cement precipitating waters were highly evolved (+1.3 to +14.4‰ δ18O‰ VSMOW) compared to Ordovician and Silurian seawaters (–5.5‰ δ18O‰ VSMOW). Strontium isotope values indicate two fluid sources: Proterozoic basement and Late Silurian evaporites. Values of 87Sr/86Sr for cements in the Freedom, Napoleon, Reading, and Scipio fields (0.7086–0.7088) are influenced by warm water sourced from Silurian strata, and values for cements in the Albion, Branch County, and Northville fields (0.7091–0.7110) record continental basement signatures. Cement precipitating fluids in TBR oil fields likely have similar sources and timing. However, water–rock interactions along fault pathways modified source waters, giving each oil field a unique petrographic and geochemical signature. Fluid movement in TBR oil fields likely were initiated by reactivation of basement faulting during Silurian–Devonian tectonism.

You do not currently have access to this article.