More than 500 large, well exposed, calcareous olistoliths of Paleocene to Eocene age are exposed in the Eocene deep-water Rio Ocoa Formation of southern Hispaniola. Due to the low degree of tectonic overprint, their sedimentary characteristics can be studied in detail. The olistoliths reach up to 6 km in length and are largely conformable with regional bedding. Slump folds formed within some semiconsolidated blocks during downslope transport. Olistolith age, geometry, lithology, facies, orientation of slump fold axes, and regional geology indicate provenance from a carbonate platform and slope environment that overlay the Cretaceous island-arc rocks of the Cordillera Central to the northeast. The blocks were transported as far as 15 km and a show a logarithmic size-distance relationship. Seismicity associated with the initiation of strike-slip faulting along the subsiding, inactive arc during the Middle Eocene is likely to have triggered the detachment and mobilization of the olistoliths.