Coagulation experiments conducted using illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and four natural sediment samples in blade and Couette reactors with solutions of various salinities yielded collision-efficiency factors significantly higher than those in the literature, indicating that coagulation begins at lower salinities (1/2-1 per mil). The natural sediments do not generally behave as might be predicted for a mixture of the standards of the minerals of which the natural sediment samples were comprised. The halftimes for coagulation of the particles indicate that, in nature, the coagulation process would probably be completed in the first few parts-per-thousand salinity.--Modified journal abstract.

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