Anthony F. Amos, Steven C. Rabalais, Richard S. Scalan; Oil-field Callianassa burrows on a Texas barrier-island beach. Journal of Sedimentary Research ; 53 (2): 411–416. doi: https://doi.org/10.1306/212F81ED-2B24-11D7-8648000102C1865D
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Crustacean burrow casts composed of an oil and sand mixture were found exposed at low tide on Mustang Island beach 15 months after oil from the IXTOC I spill washed ashore. The burrows, similar in morphology to those of the mud shrimp, Callianassa islagrande, contained 34 percent oil by volume overall and 59 percent oil by volume in the inner core. We conclude that the burrows were filled with an oil-water-sand mixture shortly after IXTOC oil beached. Approximately 200 bbl of IXTOC oil may have been preserved in this form along South Texas beaches.--Journal abstract.