Prelithification overburden stress does not normally exceed the load-bearing capacity of allochems (fossils or such other elements); therefore, compaction-deformation is an exception in limestones. In the presence of rigid bodies or surfaces, overburden stresses may be locally amplified to exceed the limit required to cause deformation of allochems earlier than usually possible. Consequently, deformed allochems may serve as signals for the presence of hardgrounds or emersion surfaces, otherwise unobstrusive in most limestones other than chalk. This idea is an outgrowth of our earlier study (Chanda et al., 1977) and is supported by the study of an oolite horizon in the Precambrian Bhander Limestone, India and relevant published data on hardgrounds.

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