There is a marked compositional contrast between hemipelagite and turbidite material of some Upper Cretaceous turbidite units of the Flysch Zone of the East Alps and of Helminthoid Flysch (Western Alps and Apennines). The first is a carbonate-poor or carbonate-free deposit (0%-5% CaCO 3 ), whereas the directly underlying turbidite sediment contains 15% to 60% calcium carbonate. These calcite-free hemipelagites were deposited below the calcite compensation level in deep-sea troughs probably connected with subduction zones or with transform fault zones.

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