During the past four years a carbonate-rich crust has developed in the bottom of a tea kettle in response to release of carbon dioxide during heating. The crust can be divided into an upper zone that contains aragonite and Mg-calcite and a lower crust that contains only Mg-calcite. In addition to the carbonate phases, the crust contains 5% by weight amorphous silica in the form of thin delicate sheets.

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